CLOTH MANUFACTURE IN THE MEDIEVAL LORDSHIP OF KIDWELLY

R. IAN JACK

Extracted from "The Antiquary"
Published & copyright held by The Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society

From the thirteenth century onwards, cloth was manufactured in the marcher lordships of Wales on a capitalised, industrial basis. There were two major areas of concentration, one in the north in the lordships of Denbigh, Dyffryn Clwyd and Chirk, the other in the south in the later counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan and Carmarthen.[1] Except for the abbey of Tintern and the priory of Carmarthen,[2] the impetus for a cloth industry was largely secular and can be gauged best by the building of fulling-mills.

The fulling-mill was the adaptation of waterpower to an age-old process of beating woven cloth in a cleansing solution both to consolidate the texture and to remove fats and other impurities. To build a fulling-mill implied a conscious effort of capital investment comparable to the construction of a new grist-mill, so an analysis of the leasing of pandies reveals trends in the local cloth industry.[3] Using this methodology for the lordship of Kidwelly, some sputtering light can be cast on otherwise dark aspects of its industrial history.

The cloth industry in the medieval lordship of Kidwelly was very much concentrated around its two small urban centres, Kidwelly and Llanelli. Because the lordship was in the hands of the house of Lancaster from the late thirteenth century onwards,[4] and incorporated in the Duchy of Lancaster administration of the English kings in the fifteenth century and beyond, it is reasonably well documented, although the major series of local ministers' accounts begins only in 1399.[5] The house of Lancaster obtained Kidwelly through marriage to the heiress of the Patrick Chaworth who died In 1282 and the inquisition taken after Chaworth's death gives a useful summary of the Lancastrian inheritance in the lordship.[6]

Already in 1282 there was a fulling-mill situated on the South Weir, below the castle on the Gwendraeth Fach. This is not the weir whose substantial stone foundations are clearly visible today athwart the river below the south east corner of the castle perimeter: that is a nineteenth-century construction to provide a water-supply to the new Castle Mill (now an antique shop).[7] The South Weir of the Middle Ages seems much more likely to have been constructed across the Gwendraeth under the north bailey of the castle, where a stony spur still channels the river into a narrow area by the west bank. The west bank, moreover, just south of this dam-site, still shows ample evidence of stone-walling and a stone platform on the shore can be detected in winter close to the weir. There is every likelihood that a dam constructed at this point, some 400m. downstream from the tidal limit of the unimpeded Gwendraeth, would have the effect not only of creating an ordinary millpond upstream but also of deepening the navigable channel downstream during high tide. In the thirteenth century, it is most unlikely that any other weir was constructed downstream from the south weir (although there were dams upstream to create water-courses for grist-mills): by the fifteenth century several additional weirs had been built below the south weir and the original river access to the castle must have been substantially modified. But in the time of Edward I, the area under the north bailey of the: castle may very well represent the early wharfage area for the delivery of stores to the Chaworth castle by sea. The water-course from the dammed Gwendraeth to the fulling-mill would run south beside the castle mound, under a stone or timber capping passing beneath the pathway leading up from the wharf.

The fulling-mill situated on this leat in 1282 was valued at the quite substantial amount of 20s a year. The two grist-mills 'under the castle', in fact some distance upstream from the north bailey, were much more valuable, estimated at 18 a year, while the 'mills of the Welsh', the native communal corn-mills in the interior of the lordship, were valued at 40 5s a year.[8]  Little changed in the Kidwelly area in water-powered mills over the following century. Still in 1361 and 1362 there was only the single fulling-mill, now valued at 10s a year, while the number of grist-mills is given as eight (some of which were presumably in the Welshry), worth 26.[9]

Under John of Gaunt, the Welsh corn-mills disappear from the seigniorial economy of the lordship but the concentration of mills on the two kilometers of the Gwendraeth Fach close to the castle was accentuated and by 1399 included a second pandy. The original south weir fulling-mill still existed leased to John Owain at the thirteenth-century rate of 20s: John Owain also leased the two grain-mills on the Gwendraeth for 26 13s 4d a year. A new pandy, called Bordeculle, probably located on the demesne lands of Caldecote on the flats to the south of the castle, was by 1399 at lease for another 20s. Out in the country John of Gaunt had erected two new grist-mills, called Morlais mill and 'Cowemull', leased at 5 in 1395 for a term of five years.[10]

The mill income in the part of the lordship directly accounted for by the castle reeve had therefore changed from an estimated 59 5s in the 1280s (largely from the Welshry) and 26 10s in the 1360s to an actual gross 33 13s 4d by the end of the century, when the fulling-mills were at their peak value of 2. The death of John of Gaunt in 1399 and the accession of his son as King Henry IV made Kidwelly an aspect of the royal estates: almost simultaneously the Glyndwr revolt did a great deal of damage, not least to mills, throughout the marches.[11]

From 1400 onwards the administrators of Kidwelly were on full alert. Already in 1399 the castle gates had been strengthened 'for better defence in resisting the malice' of Richard II.[12] Now in 1400 and 1401 two of the towers were partly rebuilt and the main gate was renewed, while men were specially employed 'to watch and guard' and six pounds of gunpowder were brought into the castle store in 1402.[13] But in the following year, the Glyndwr rebels under Henry Don did a substantial amount of damage to the castle and the small town, which took more than a decade to repair.[14] The main hall was reroofed with shingles at once, some repairs to grist-mills were completed between 1405 and 1407,[15] but still in 1416 the tower over the gates, gutted in October 1403, was only just being rebuilt and the drawbridge, portcullis and walling were still being restored or replaced.[16]

Among the buildings destroyed in 1403 was certainly one of the two fulling-mills, for when another pandy was at last constructed on the site in 1443 the fate of its predecessor was rehearsed in the account roll.[17] The pandy called 'Bordeculle' appears in the 1400-1 account but not in the next surviving account a quarter of a century later, nor in the receiver's accounts during those twenty-five years.[18] Between 1404 and 1407, however, a Welshman called Gwallter ab Hywel leased a mill called 'Tockemull' for 5s, which, the receiver reported, was not charged on the castle-reeve's account.[19] The probable rationalisation of this scrappy evidence is that both the fulling-mills of 1401, the old one on the south weir and the newer one called 'Bordeculle', were destroyed during the Glyndwr attack. A new, small pandy, worth only a quarter of either of those destroyed, was hastily erected on the Gwendraeth and leased irregularly to a local man who saw profit in fulling the cloth which was still being manufactured in some quantity within the lordship. Gwallter's tucking-mill did not survive for long but was an earnest of the significance of cloth-manufacture for the restoration of the town economy after the trauma of 1403.

A larger mill was constructed probably in 1422, when William Sylle and John Arnold entered on a six-year lease, paying 24s annually. This new fulling-mill was upstream on the Gwendraeth Fach, between the two grist-mills, Middle and Cadog's, and utilising the water course for Middle Mill.[20] John Arnold was certainly a burgess of the town at this time[21] and William Sylle was a prominent lessee whose weir, 'Selleswere', was his eponymous memorial into Tudor times.[22]

Soon afterwards there was a second pandy  again. In 1425 a water-mill under 'le Baillywall' was leased for eight years to Hugh Denneyth for the unusually large sum of 2 6s 8d.[23]  Normally when a mill is described simply as a water-mill, it is for grinding, but in 1433, on expiry of the eight-year lease, it was leased for a further six years as a fulling-mill to Edward Stradling, Gruffudd Du and Owain ap Maredudd:[24] before this lease had run its course, however, in 1435 the pandy was included in a new general lease of the Caldecote demesne straddling the Gwendraeth Fach south-west of the castle and does not reappear as a separately leased entity.[25] It still existed in 1425, though not necessarily in operation,[26] but when in the following year the general lease of Caldecote was discontinued, the pandy disappeared from the account.[27]

The other pandy, the one sharing Middle Mill's water-supply, was still leased for 24s in 1437 but had been destroyed by 1440.[28] Its two lessees, William Sylle and John Arnold, joined forces, however, with two others, Dafydd Du and Gwallter Gwilym, to lease for seven years at 40s a new fulling-mill built in 1438.[29] This new pandy was on a site similar to the earlier one: it is described as lying in the Hane, which was the low-lying pasture next to the river on the east bank to the north-east of the castle.[30] it is also said to lie to the north of Cadog's grain-mill and to lie between Cadog's and Middle mill.[31] Since Cadog's mill was upstream from Middle mill, there is some difficulty in reconciling this profusion of topographical information: but, since medieval compass bearings are rather rough and ready, the pandy should probably be assumed to have been erected to the east of the existing corn-mills upstream from the castle.[32]

The seven-year lease of this fulling‑mill did not run its course but was converted to one of three years, expiring in 1442.[33] The same four lessees then negotiated a new ten-year lease at the reduced rate of 30s a year.[34] This lease was in turn succeeded on expiry in 1462 by yet another ten-year lease at a further reduction to only 20s: of the previous lessees only Dafydd Du survived, in partnership now with Rhys Gwilym and an Englishman, John Kynge.[35] These three still leased the mill in 1465 but by 1477 the building had fallen down and was not rebuilt.[36]

Yet another new pandy had a similar though shorter history. This was called Alknathan (also spelt Alknaithan or Alchkenatha), built at royal expense in 1443 on the site of the mill destroyed in the Glyndwr revolt, presumably the one at the south weir under the castle.[37] At this time there was a good deal of maintenance and rebuilding going on in and around Kidwelly Castle. Reflecting Henry VI's piety and sensibility, a new altar was put in the tower called the King's closet and a new latrine was built beside the King's chamber, where a new window with 'four lights as in Newark Castle' was also inserted. Subsequently retiling and replacement of old rafters was also being done. Just north of the castle the wood called Alknathan was enclosed: around it a hedged ditch some 500m. long was dug more than a metre broad and just less than a metre deep. It is from this enclosed woodland just above the pandy site that the new fulling-mill of 1443 took its unexpected name.[38]

A house was built for the fuller over the mill at the expense of the lessee, himself a fuller's son, Ieuan Crach ap Toker (tucker).[39] The accounts for the roofing of the thatched house, probably in 1445, survive in an original file of subsidiary documents and cost 13s 4d, while a new ditch some 500m. long was dug, presumably for the mill-race, costing 10s:[40] the previous ditch of 500 m. enclosing Alknathan wood had cost 50s.[41] Ieuan Crach did not long continue as lessee and by 1449 the unexpired portion of his ten-year term at the annual sum of 20s had been assumed by John Deio and Cadwgan Taverner.[42] This lease expired in 1454. For a year the pandy lay almost idle while heavy timber-beams were replaced, so only 4s net was received and in the following year, 1455, the pandy was leased again for the more realistic figure of 13s 4d.[43]  By 1458 repairs were required so extensive that there was no revenue at all in the years 1458 to 1460 and when a new ten-year lease to John Malefant and his associates was at last finalised in 1461, the sum had been reduced further to 10s. This was paid for at least four years, but at some time between 1465 and 1477 the pandy of Alknathan finally became unusable and did not revive.[44]

But, as had happened in the 1420s, and the 1440s, as fulling-mills fell out of use, new ones were built, so in 1477 a replacement for Alknathan appeared, on the Gwendraeth Fach to the north of the castle, on the site of the Hane mill off 1438.[45] This new, small pandy was leased for 3s 4d and continued at this figure regularly up to 1488, but in that year the lease value was doubled. In 1496 John ap William ap Gruffudd entered on a thirty-year lease, still at 6s 6d a year. After the expiry of that long lease it was leased again together grain-mills in Iscoed Morris in 1532 and the half-mark was still being paid up to the end of Henry VIII's reign.[46]

The seigniorial concern with the cloth industry in the immediate area of Kidwelly castle was, therefore, steadily maintained throughout the Lancastrian, Yorkist and early Tudor periods of lordship. There was always at least one reasonably large pandy at work, with emergency arrangements in the years after the physical destruction caused by the Glyndwr revolt. Once the lordship returned to normality by Henry VI's reign, there were regularly two fulling-mills at lease in five different locations until Edward IV's time, when the pandies built in 1438 and 1443 closed, probably simultaneously and were replaced by a new small concern bringing in only 3s 4d a year. But it was possible to double this lease-value early in Henry VII's reign and the tradition of the industry was maintained into the sixteenth century. Still in 1737 a former burgage (now a coal yard) was identified as a 'croft y ddyntir', where the tenters had once stretched out the cloth to dry after fulling.[47]

All this interest in mechanised fulling was fostered by the Duchy of Lancaster officials. But private pandies may have coexisted in the country adjacent, without necessarily finding any permanent record in the Kidwelly accounts. By Henry VIII's reign there was certainly one such mill, equal in value to the surviving seigniorial pandy. Dafydd ap Gwilym owned a fulling-mill on the delightful small stream called Drysgeirch (grid reference SN461124) and found it economically sound to lease it to another Welshman, Dafydd ap John ap Dafydd at 6s 8d for a term of twenty years.[48] The Drysgeirch is up in the Welshry: a short distance downstream from the pandy site is the surviving grist-mill of Felindre (with its nineteenth‑century equipment largely intact and its overshot wheel still an impressive skeleton). Probably in Felindre one can see the successor of one of the Welsh mills of the Chaworths' time and in the pandy nearby a reminder that in the upland pastoral Welshries there was also a small local cloth industry in many parts of the march, much less systematically documented.

The other town in Kidwelly lordship was Llanelli. Three pandies were constructed in the jurisdictional area of the town under Lancastrian management before 1361, worth an estimated 20s clear.[49] John of Gaunt maintained two of these fulling-mills and spent 6 12s 6d building a new grist-mill in the town in 1382.[50] The value of the two pandies remained close to the 1361 estimate for the three, with one leased to John Dafydd in 1390 for a ten-year term at 10s, the other, to the west of the township on the river Dulais, leased for a similar term in 1349 to Gwilym Ddu ap Gruffudd Llwyd for 8s a year.[51]  Both these mills were destroyed by Henry Don in 1403 and only the pandy on the Dulais was reconstructed in Henry IV's time. In a typical agreement, the royal officials in 1412 leased the new Dulais pandy site to Henry Morys and his heirs for twenty years at 8s on condition that Morys rebuilt and maintained the mill.[52]  Morys, however, died in 1427 or 1428 and his heirs declined to inherit the remaining few years of his long lease. Instead a new lease, for twenty-one years, was negotiated at the same annual sum, with William Robyn, descending to his heirs should he die before the lease expired.[53] The lease ran its full course and after 1450 was renewed on a year-to-year basis until 1458, when difficulties over the water-supply prevented its lease and after 1462 it was irreparably in ruins.[54]

 The pandy in the township, built on the river Lliedi, was not rebuilt until 1436 when one John ab Henry paid for a new mill 'in place of the old', next 'le Rokgardyn', the King-duke supplying only one oak-tree in assistance. John ab Henry and his heirs were then given a twenty-year lease of the pandy at the low rate of 3s 4d a year.[55]  This long lease ran its course and the pandy then fell into disrepair and never fulled again after 1457.[56]

 So, unlike Kidwelly castle, Llanelli town by the late 1450s was without any seigniorial fulling-mill. Cloth continued to be manufactured, however, and a local entrepreneur, Henry Thomas, leased for 2s a parcel of land on the Lliedi and built his own fulling-mill there in 1456-7. He took a lease of twenty‑four years on the land but died either in 1461 or 1470: certainly after 1477 the lease and presumably the fulling-mill were also dead.[57] But some time between 1495 and 1499 the Duchy administration successfully leased a fulling-mill site for thirty years to John ap Dafydd ap Gruffudd ap Gwallter on condition that he built a pandy there at his own expense. Although this mill was leased for 3s 4d, the same amount as the former Rokgardyn' pandy, it was not the same mill, since the 'Rokgardyn' mill remained separately on the accounts as an unproductive item.  The thirty-year lease ran its full length and the 3s 4d was still being paid in 1547.[58]

 The precise location of these Llanelli pandies is not easy to determine. The striking 'Rokgardyn' is of no assistance, for that was already meaningless and obsolete in the fifteenth century: the clerks who recorded the former fulling-mill in the charge on the account-roll gradually distorted the name to 'Rekgardyn' and Bokgardyn', good evidence that it was no longer a recognisable name. If, however, the mill on the Lliedi, which runs right through the township, was close to the single town grist-mill in the fifteenth century, as is eminently likely, then its site is probably around the area of the demesne mill shown in John Davies' plan of the Llanelli part of the Stepney estate drawn in 1761.[59] This eighteenth-century mill was on the west bank of the Lliedi (grid reference SN 510007), to the south-east of the banc-y-felin and Heol Nantfelin shown on the 1877-8 Ordnance Survey. If this is the site of the pandy of 1361 to 1401, then it is also the site of the 'Rokgardyn'.

The other Llanelli pandy of 1361, which did not survive until 1399, is not described: I assume that it was in Llanelli and not in the country area of Carnwyllion (which are taken together in the inquisitions of 1361-2) simply because there was no pandy at all in Carnwyllion between 1399 and 1423.[60] If a guess must be hazarded for its location, then another site on the Lliedi is most likely, perhaps at Felinfoel to the north of the township, now celebrated more for its brewery than its grist-mill.[61]

There is some difficulty over the location of the seigniorial pandy known as 'Dowelles'. The little river Dulais lies more than two kilometres west of Llanelli, entering the sea between Sandy and Pwll and running almost due south from Five Roads. But a half-burgage is described in 1452 as abutting on 'Dowellesmyll'.[62] Towns did have suburban burgages, of course, but this is unusually distant. The only conclusion must be that the pandy lay on a leat on the east side of the Dulais near its mouth, due west of Llanelli.

There was another pandy on the Dulais, but that lay in the area of Carnwyllion and came late on the scene. Carnwyllion, an area with no real administrative focus by the Lancastrian period,[63] seems to have lacked mechanical fulling until 1423 when an enterprising Welshman, Hywel ab Ieuan ap Gwallter, went ahead and put up a pandy without seeking the approval of the Duchy officials. The pandy was declared forfeit but was immediately leased to Hywel for eight years at 6s 8d annually. This pandy was known as 'Camoyle', and is almost certainly the same as the Cwm pandy on the Morlais shown on the first edition of the 25 inch Ordnance Survey map. The site is now Coed-cyw (SN 532074), where an old mill-race survives just north of Pont Morlais. Hywel ran it for a time and paid his rent until 1450, but the watercourse then fell into disrepair and the mill itself collapsed.[64]

While Hywel's mill was still functioning, another private pandy was constructed on the Morlais. Rhys ap Thomas ap Trahaiarn Du prudently sought permission for his enterprise and in 1441 was granted the lease of a suitable site, probably at the existing Troserch mill (SN 544033).[65] His twelve-year lease, at 3s 4d, ran its course and after 1453 it continued to be renewed annually until 1459. After that date, the pandy disappeared.[66]

But just as Rhys' mill was failing, yet another local man was planning to build his own pandy. In 1458-9 Ieuan Gwyn ap Dafydd ap Tomkin negotiated a lease of a suitable pandy site for sixty years at 4d a year, but the lease did not actually start that year and since he never paid the 4d in subsequent years, Ieuan Gwyn clearly abandoned his project.[67]

Despite the failure of both Hywel ab Ieuan and Ieuan Gwyn in the later 1450s, there continued to be substantial interest among the Welsh of this sheep-country in investing in mechanical fulling. So in 1462 Dafydd ap Gruffudd ab Ieuan Fychan took a lease on a pandy-site on the Dulais for 4d a year. This enterprise seems to have prospered under Dafydd ap Gwallter Fychan into Tudor times.[68] The 4d rent was still being paid in 1546.[69] The mill was presumably on the headwaters of the Dulais in the Five Roads areas since the lower reaches of the river were within Llanelli's jurisdiction.

The old site of Rhys ap Thomas ap Trahaiarn's pandy was also leased again for the same purpose, but now not at 3s 4d but only at 4d, from the late 1490s until after Henry VIII's time, but whether there was actually a fulling-mill at work on the site is not revealed by the accounts.[70]

Despite varying uncertainties and deficiencies in the surviving evidence, there is no doubt that throughout the late Middle Ages there was a cloth industry in Kidwelly lordship which went beyond mere subsistence production. Both in the sheep-country of the interior and on the lower reaches of the Gwendraeth Fach, the Dulais, the Morlais and the Lliedi, wool was consistently spun and woven into cloth in sufficient quantity to encourage both Duchy administrators and local entrepreneurs to build maintain, operate or lease a substantial number of fulling-mills.

 



[1] R. I. Jack, 'The Cloth Industry in Medieval Wales', Welsh History Review, 10 (1980-1), 447-50

[2] In the sixteenth century Carmarthen priory owned a complex of three pandies adjacent to the monastery and a fourth at Abergwili. The fine mill-race from Cwmgwili weir on the river Gwili running 3608 yards to the priory site on the Tywi is still in existence. (R. I. Jack, 'Fullingmills in Wales and the March before 1547', Archaeologia Cambrensis, 130 (1981), 87, 93‑4.

[3] Jack, Welsh History Review, 10 (1980-1), 443-7.

[4] D. Daven Jones, A History of Kidwelly, Carmarthen 1908, 23. Jones attributed the origins of the cloth industry to the Flemings in twelfth-century Kidwelly (p. 100).

[5] There are some receiver's accounts for Richard II's reign and one for 1369-70 (Public Record Office, Duchy of Lancaster, Ministers' Accounts, DL29/584/9236-9240). The series of accounts from the various local officials begins only in 1399 (PRO, DL29/573/9063).

[6] PRO, Chancery, Inquisitions postmortem, Edward 1, C133/35/4/14, taken on I August 1283.

[7] For a map showing this weir and the original line of the nineteenth-century mill leat, which is now diverted some 20m. S of the weir to serve as a drain, see Heather James, 'Topographical Notes on the Early Medieval Borough of Kidwelly', Carms. Antiq. 16 (1980), fig. 1, p. 16.

[8] PRO, C133/35/4/14.

[9] PRO, Chancery, Inquisitions postmortem, Edward III, C135/161/37 (inquisition after death of Henry, Duke of Lancaster); C135/169/37 (inquisition after death of Maud, widow of the Duke of Bavaria).

[10] PRO, DL 29/573/9063, 9064; Jones, History of Kidwelly, 27‑8.

[11] William Rees, South Wales and the March, 1284-1415: a Social and Agrarian Study, Oxford 1924, 273-80.

[12] PRO, DL29/584/9240.

[13] PRO, DL29/584/9241.

[14] J. E. Lloyd, Owen Glendower, Oxford 1931, 76.

[15] PRO, DL29/584/9242.

[16] PRO, DL29/584/9243.

[17] PRO, DL29/573/9072.

[18] PRO, DL291573/9065, 9066; 584/9240-9243.

[19] PRO, DL29/584/9242.

[20] PRO, DL29/573/9064.

[21] PRO, DL29/584/9244: in connection with the payment of the borough's gift of 60 to Henry VI in 1441 a list of thirteen burgesses is given in the receiver's account.

[22] PRO, DL29/575/9097.

[23] PRO, DL29/573/9066.

[24] PRO, DL29/573/9067.

[25] PRO, DL29/573/9067.

[26] PRO, DL29/574/9077.

[27] PRO, DL29/574/9078.

[28] PRO, DL29/573/9067, 9069.

[29] PRO, DL29/573/9068.

[30] PRO, DL29/573/9072. For the location of the Hane, see James, Carms. Antiq. 16 (1980), 10

[31] PRO, DL29/573/9072, 9076.

[32] Cf. the confusion between S and E in the description of a Kidwelly burgage in 1511 (James. Carms. Antiq. 16 (1980), 7; National Library of Wales, Muddlescombe 2119).

[33] PRO, DL29/573/9070, 9071.

[34] PRO, DL29/573/9072.

[35] PRO, DL29/574/9083.

[36] PRO, DL29/574/9085.

[37] PRO, DL29/573/9072.

[38] PRO, DL29/584/9245.

[39] PRO, DL29/573/9072.

[40] PRO, DL29/573/9074.

[41] PRO, DL29/584/9245.

[42] PRO, DL29/573/9075.

[43] PRO, DL29/574/9079, 9080.

[44] PRO, DL29/574/9082‑9097; 596/9558 (the 1459-60 account which is included in a Monmouth file).

[45] PRO, DL29/574/9085. The siting of it between Cadog's mill and Middle Mill and therefore on the Hane site is proven by the early Tudor survey, PRO, Duchy of Lancaster, Rentals and Surveys, DL43/12/14 fo. 83r.

[46] PRO, DL29/574/9085-9097; 576/9115; 577/9122-9135.

[47] Dyfed RO, Carmarthen, Trant-Yelverton 157

[48] J. Morgan, 'The River "Tyskeethe" ', Trans. Carms. Antiq. Soc. and Field Club, 1-2 (1905-7) 111, 115.

[49] PRO, C135/161/ 37.

[50] PRO, DL29/584/9237.

[51] PRO, DL29/573/9063.

[52] PRO, DL29/573/9066.

[53] PRO, DL29/573/9067

[54] PRO, DL29/573/9076; 574/9077-9083.

[55] PRO, DL29/573/9067.

[56] PRO, DL29/574/9080, 9082.

[57] PRO, DL29/574/9082-9085.

[58] PRO, DL29/575/9102; 577/9135.

[59] Dyfed RO, Carmarthen, Stepney Estate Office 72.

[60] PRO, DL29/573/9063-9066.

[61] For Felinfoel grist-mill, which was purchased by Henry Child around 1800, see Dyfed RO, Carmarthen, Castell Gorfod MS 169, Castell Gorfod Maps and Plans 27 and W. Kemmis Buckley, 'Some Aspects of Early Nonconformity and Early Commerce in Llanelli', Carms. Antiq. 5 (1964-69), 15-16. A pandy shared the corn-mill's pond there in 1805 (Dyfed RO, Carmarthen, Mansel-Lewis 2538 map xiv).

[62] PRO, DL29/574/9077.

[63] J. D. Davies, 'The Castle of Carnwyllion', Carms. Antiq. 18 (1982), 29-36.

[64] PRO, DL29/573/9066-9076; 574/9077, 9078.

[65] PRO, DL29/573/9070.

[66] PRO, DL29/573/9071-9076; 574/9077-9083.

[67] PRO, DL29/574/9082, 9083.

[68] PRO, DL29/574/9083-9091; 575/9095, 9096.

[69] PRO, DL29/577/9135.

[70] PRO, DL29/575/9101-577/9135.

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