The Carmarthenshire Antiquary
Published & copyright held by The Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society


by Heather James

The production of these notes has been prompted by discussions on the evolution of Kidwelly's town plan at the recent conference on 'Welsh Towns—their archaeology and early history' organized by the Cambrian Archaeological Association at Trinity College, Carmarthen, Easter 1980, and by recent small scale excavations by the Dyfed Archaeological Trust in the former Castle Farm farmyard, hard by the mediaeval town wall and castle moat. In January and February 1980, trenches were cut in the former farmyard to assess the archaeological potential of the area and gauge what damage, if any, would be done by the proposed works for a car park. The need for a closer examination of the town's mediaeval defences and the topographical development within the early mediaeval town was then felt and these notes attempt to do this. The author has of course relied very heavily on the researches and suggestions of the editor, W. H Morris, and would like to thank him for making his work so freely available.

The first castle was built by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury on the high knoll on the west bank of the River Gwendraeth at the head of the tidal estuary, shortly after he was granted the commote of Kidwelly in 1106. The present castle is largely of thirteenth and fourteenth century work, but the excavations of Sir Cyril Fox and C. A. Ralegh Radford in 1931 demonstrated that the present outer curtain wall and ditch formed the original defensive circuit, and that the Norman castle was thus of the 'ringwork' type.1 They noted in addition the remarkable outer enclosures or baileys, set symmetrically to the north and south of the castle covering some 8 acres. The southern, or castle, bailey contained the original mediaeval borough. A machine cut section up to the mediaeval town wall (see Fig. 1) showed that it was built over a levelled off earlier earth bank massively revetted with boulders at the rear and possibly the face, although this was not examined in the excavation.2 This suggests that the division into two baileys was an original feature of their construction. But even with extensive excavation it would be difficult to prove that these outer baileys were constructed at the same time as the ringwork. Certainly Radford believes them to be part of an overall scheme of defence and town plantation and contemporary with the ringwork.

The Northern Bailey
The northern bailey, (see Fig. 1) is made up of two enclosures. The inner one is entered 90m. north of the north gateway of the castle and both entrances are placed on the edge of the steep scarp above the river. There is a lot of loose stone in this entrance area; the bank terminal is higher and rounder than the remaining length of bank curving to the west and then south west. One suspects a stone structure at the entrance. There is a narrow track running obliquely down the steep scarp to the river side, which here has remains of substantial stone revetting. G. T. Clark's plan of 1852 also shows this track and a boundary wall at its base between the river and the cliff, and traces of it are still visible.3 This could additionally secure the river frontage below the castle, and possibly the entrance guarded an exit point down to a wharf. The inner enclosure of the northern bailey is fronted by a wide water filled ditch, which has been filled in and covered by a tarmac track on its western side. A late fifteenth/early sixteenth century Muddlescombe deed, recording the lease of a burgage on the south (recte the east) side of Bower street, defines the rear of the property as the 'fossat' castri', the castle ditch, which is the in-filled western side of the northern inner bailey ditch.4 Bower street is now Water street. There is an outer enclosure at the northern end of the northern bailey, again defended by a substantial eastern bank. The only breach in its bank is a modern one, and it could only be entered from the larger enclosure to the south. There was no need for a ditch on the northern side since a stream runs across it down to the river from a spring on the hillslopes of the former open fields to the north west. This is likely to be the 'Myche Lake' of the mediaeval and sixteenth century documents.5 A fifteenth century Duchy of Lancaster Minister's Account for Kidwelly refers to a new mill constructed at this very point on the stream outside the bailey.6

One cannot be sure without excavation which of these two enclosures making up the northern bailey is primary, but fortunately there is an unusually specific reference in the Duchy of Lancaster Minister's Accounts of 1404-1407, (DL29/584/9242) amongst a flurry of activity in repairing and strengthening the Castle against another attack by Owen Glyndwr and his forces, to 'the new digging and making of a ditch outside the east (i.e. north) gate of the Castle near the garden of the Castle for protection, defence and safe custody'. Since the northernmost enclosure has no ditch, it is reasonable to assume that it is the more massive inner bank and ditch that are referred to.

There is no reason to suppose that the northern bailey, in contrast to the southern, or Castle Bailey, was ever built upon. In more peaceful times the area outside the north gate contained the Castle Garden. In the Inquisition Post Mortem of Payne de Chaworth in 1282, we hear of a curtilage and garden within the Castle7 In 1361 there were two gardens, whose fruit and herbage was worth 3s.4d. per annum and also a dovecote. When peace was restored after the Glyndwr uprising, we again hear of gardens in the area. There is nothing in sixteenth and seventeenth century documents to tell us what use the northern bailey was being put to, but there is a map of 1789 in the Cawdor/Vaughan Map Books which shows the area.8 The two sections of the northern bailey area are described as 'The Two Conigars'; conigar is a variant of coneygarth or rabbit warren. Mediaeval rabbit farming is thought to have been introduced by the Normans and used coastal sand dune sites and offshore islands for warrens. The manor of Caldecote, near Pembrey, and part of the Lordship of Kidwelly, was, in the Middle Ages, a profitable rabbit farm. Later we know of large rabbit warrens in inland and upland areas.

The memory of this specialised use was preserved in the place name of a garden leased by the corporation in 1914 on the corner of Water Street, opposite the Baptist Chapel and alongside the lane (formerly the ditch) leading to the northern bailey. The garden on which a shop was to be built was 'part of Conigar bach'. In the absence of further evidence one may suppose that rabbit farming was practised in the bailey some time in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, at least long enough for the placename to become firmly attached to the land. The bailey, being enclosed by banks and ditches, would have been ideal for a warren as there were banks for the rabbits to burrow in and ditches to stop them getting out, for rabbits, we are reliably informed, do not like to get their feet wet.9

Springs and Streams
We can be sure that most of these ditches around the Castle and the baileys would have been water filled. Indeed in more peaceful times they may have been kept scoured to serve as drains bearing off surplus water from the Water and New Street areas. We have already mentioned 'Myche Lake' but numerous other springs rise on the north west side of Water Street—its present name more correctly describing its character than the Bower Street of the Middle Ages and sixteenth century. The wells in the town fields north east of the 'Summerway' track have already been mentioned in a previous article.l0 A grant of 1393 actually mentions a stream running down Bower Street; "rivulum vocat Boierstretislake"11 This stream was known as 'Bushy Lake' and a pre-First World War photograph shows it running down the western side of Water Street with large slabs bridging it between front doors and the street. This then ran down New Street, formerly Ditch Street, and probably debouched into the Gwendraeth, where the bridge was built. It would have been part conduited and perhaps diverted fairly early and was the source for the 'pistle or water spout and receiver of water' at the back of the 'Boot and Shoe' public house by the main Gateway into the town, referred to in a Presentment for General Sessions in 1816, as a danger to horse and foot passengers. The Borough Accounts some twenty years earlier (1790) note the opening and mending of a gutter across the road at the lower end of the bailey. An elaborate but seemingly unnecessary scheme was proposed by Benjamin Haselwood in 1804 to increase water supplies to the new Grist Mill he intended to build on the site of the old Castle Mill by ponding Bushy Lake near its source, (in the triangle of land between Ferry Road and Water Street) and conduiting it across the Bailey. Presumably this hare-brained scheme was never carried out, the present race being more than sufficient for the mill.

It is important to establish the course of these streams even when conduited, because they indicate the natural directions of drainage and allow us to single out hollows and gulleys that are man-made. Water Street and New Street to the Bridge is one such channel with the hump-shaped knoll on which the Castle is built, with its glacially deposited layers of boulder clay over the Ordovician shale, to the east. There are two breaches in the escarpment on the river side of this knoll which seem artificial. The first is the lane running down from the 'Boot and Shoe' public house to the Castle Mill, a classical hollow-way in form. It could well have originated as a ditch fronting the southern town defences which perhaps diverted the Bushy Lake Stream. A very early grant by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, between 1107 and 1115, grants land to the new priory at Kidwelly, a cell of Sherborne Abbey.12 The boundaries of the carucate then granted were 'from the new ditch of the new mill, by the river which flows by the same to the house of a certain Balba, and thence to the river running through the alder grove, to the way, and from the way, as the river runs to the sea; also all the hill called the hill of Salomon, as far as the aforesaid way'. This new ditch could be the diverted Bushy Lake, (see Fig. 1) also forming a defence on the south side of the new borough, rather than the present mill leat, since the sense of the location indicates that the carucate lay wholly south of the new mill itself. It is unlikely that any mill other than the Castle Mill is meant here, at this early date. Centuries of use have cut the gulley down into a hollow-way. The second breach is more ravine-like, and lies south of the Castle gateway and knoll outside the gate and is a steep track curving down onto the Castle Marsh. A pronounced track is shown on the Buck print of 1740, which views the Castle from the east side from the river, and this must be the present breach, although the perspective is somewhat distorted.l3

The Town Walls
The earliest murage grant for Kidwelly is 1280; the town walls are thus likely to be in existence by 1300 or so. The trench excavated in February 1980 proved that the walls overlaid and followed the course of the earlier earthern defences. The best extant stretch of wall is that running west from the castle moat on the north side of the town, which is in the guardianship of the Ancient Monuments Branch of the Welsh Office. It is some 1.6m: wide and survives to an average height of 2.3m. Scaffolding holes through the thickness of the wall at a height of lm. above ground level occur at irregular intervals along the length of the wall. The trench cut by Dyfed Archaeological Trust referred to above showed that the wall has very slight footings. It is built of roughly dressed boulders, some derived from the glacial drift, others from the Mynydd y Garreg area, and also of thin slabs from the local Pennant beds. The wall splays out and terminates in the ditch to prevent access into the town and this part is built wholly of Pennant slabs. Most of the facing stones of the wall have been robbed.

The town wall now terminates in the northwest corner of Castle Farm garden, at the point where it would have turned 90 degrees southwards. The town wall has a chamfered face here, which suggests that the corner may have been formed by a short cross wall between the two long stretches (see Fig. 1). Although the area is very overgrown it is clear that the short stretch of wall running westwards from the wider town wall abuts it and is secondary. Although breached by a small brick shed the narrower wall continues to a projecting, hollow, low arched gateway. The arch is 2.6m. wide though now crudely blocked to half its width. It is 56cm. wide, of the same stone as the town wall, with no brick visible in its makeup. The arch is at a lower level than the town wall and lies over the former course of the town ditch. It is illustrated in W. H. Morris's article in 1975 and there called the `North Gate', which he argues is one of the three referred to by Leland.14 A different interpretation is put forward here for the location of the North Gate and the date of this archway. (See below, in the section on Town Gates).

There is no trace of the walls on the south west side of the Bailey, but their course is clearly detectable from the position of the roads, the breaks of slope, and line of property boundaries. Before the present Castle Farm was built a strip of rough ground is shown on the 1911 1:2500 O.S. Map clearly marking the slope of the front of the bank, surmounted by the wall above the ditch, which is now the lane into the northern Bailey. New street was formerly Ditch Street. If one continues the line of the track to the northern Bailey across the graveyard of the Baptist Chapel, one sees a number of gravestones leaning at drunken angles, having been set in the loose ground over the in-filled ditch. Equally the angle of gravestones along a line south west from the front of the chapel may indicate slip over the harder ground of the wall itself.

There is the shell of a ruined rectangular building south west of the Baptist Chapel whose western gable end lies along the line of the town wall. It is built of the same stone as the town wall though narrower, and is probably a rebuild over town wall footings. Most of the older buildings and boundary walls in the Bailey are built of the same stone as the town wall and indicate extensive robbing of the mediaeval defences. The exact line of the town wall round to the junction with the town Gatehouse cannot be established without excavation but its general course is clear. The walls were still there in the mid eighteenth century and a lease of 1801 mentions a piece of land and old wall on the north side of 'Bailey Gate' adjoining 'the dwelling house of the said John Thomas called Boot and Shoe'. There is now a gentle slope down from nos. 2-4 New Street to the road surface and round to the 'Boot and Shoe' public house.

From the Gatehouse, described below, the course of the wall is much clearer. The road down to the Castle Mill running east from the Gatehouse is set in a marked hollow-way and the ground rises steeply on its eastern side to form a sharply angled plateau. This bank, like the whole of the southern and southeastern circuit of the defences, is very overgrown and derelict but there are a number of loose stones on its slopes from the wall. The face of the wall is detectable in the undergrowth along this steep slope and survives in places to two and three courses.

Where the wall approaches the steep track outside the barbican, (Fig. 1) it turns westwards up the slope. Its footings probably lie below the modern eastern boundary wall of No. 19 Castle Street. Another wall runs down the slope to the mill leat, and was built following a boundary dispute between Lord Cawdor and the Borough in 1840.15 The pronounced knoll outside the ditch and drawbridge of the main gateway was called 'Bank Shobert' in a 1866 lease.

Excavations were carried out there in the early 1970's, but the results have not been published so we do not know the nature or date of the circular stone structure reportedly found there. G. T. Clark, in his history of Kidwelly castle of 1852 considered 'the barbican . . . from traces of its foundation to have been a small circular tower. It occupied a rocky knoll on the counterscarp of the main ditch opposite the great gateway . . it was evidently intended to cover the drawbridge . .The work seems to have been cut off from the other outworks by a dry ditch or covered way, leading from the river'.16 It is unlikely that this breach was made in the postmediaeval period, rather should we consider the need for an access point here to the riverside meadows, and the leat, a potentially vulnerable point needing defence.

There may have been a postern gate here perhaps. It is worth noting that the meadows and pastures below the castle were valuable lands, they were held in demesne (i.e. in the lord's hands) after much arable land had been leased out. We read in the Minister's Account of 1444 of 'the pasture under the Castle called the Hayne'.17 The Cawdor map shows the Hane lying on the eastern bank of the River. We also read in these accounts of the expenses involved in mowing, gathering and cocking the hay from the meadows below the Castle. Even the rushes were sold, and of course used in quantity for floor covering. The 1609 Duchy of Lancaster survey of Gerard Bromfield mentions a Castle Fair, which was held on a 'parcell of Commons lying on the North syde of the River Gwendraeth vechan nighe unto the Towne Walls'.18 The river as a means of transport and travel and its meadows and leats were vital to the functioning of the castle; it seems unlikely that the town and castle had only one access point from the Castle Mill.

The Town Gates
There are very few mediaeval references to the town gates. A reference in 1479 in the Minister's accounts refers to moneys paid for lock for the gate near the 'big gate' of the Castle.19 This adds strength to the suggestion that there was a gate on the eastern side of the town near the main gate of the Castle for what other area fits the description? We know from the Minister's Accounts of 1404-7 that Glyndwr's forces had taken the town and burnt the 'Schirehall' because timber was salvaged from there for 'the construction and making of diverse necessary works within the castle'.20

Our true starting point in a discussion of the town gates is John Leland's Itinerary of 1539.21 He says that 'the old toun is pretily waullid, and hath hard by the waul a castle. The old town is nere al desolatid, but the castle is meately wel kept up. I saw ther iii gates, and over one of them was the ruine of a fair town haul, and under a prison'. The town hall (Shirehall) then is the main gateway into the town, still standing at the southern end of the Bailey controlling access up Castle street to the castle itself. The early nineteenth travellers, like Malkin, seem to have merely repeated Leland or each other on the number of gates.

The Gatehouse is considered, on stylistic grounds, to be early fourteenth century in date, although there are several periods of build and perhaps replaced an earlier structure. It is surprising to find that this imposing structure has never been described or studied in detail. G. T. Clark devoted a paragraph to it in his study of the Castle. The portal has a drop arch and a portcullis groove. The archway is not recessed at all from the chambers either side and there is a single long chamber, the length of the gatehouse, above the arch. The eastern side of the gatehouse has a chamfered, ashlared corner with a slight pyramidal buttress at its base. The rear of the chambers on this side has been destroyed. The front and side of the western part is obscured by the 'Boot and Shoe' public house, which is built up against it. There are later additions to the rear. Three storeys are visible inside: a ground floor, probably Leland's prison, a first and a second floor which forms the long chamber probably of the shirehall. The ground floor rooms either side of the arch seem to have been used as cottages in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and were separately owned.

Our next source is one nearly contemporary with Leland's description, a town rental of 15059, part of an extent of manors within the Lordship of Kidwelly, published in this journal by W. H. Morris in 1975, where two gates are mentioned.22 But before attempting to locate these gates, one should note the imprecision in compass directions in the descriptions of properties in the mediaeval period, since only the cardinal points are used. We have already seen how the north gate of the castle is called the east gate. Similarly in late mediaeval and sixteenth century Muddlescombe deeds, we have references to properties north or south of Bower (Water) street, which should be north-west or south-east. The early sixteenth century town rental, edited by W. H. Morris, starts along one side of a street and then returns to its starting point along the other. Thus the description of the list of burgages along Bower street goes 'from the eastern part outside the North Gate of the Bailey to Pitcroft, (the north end of Water street) and thence on the north side (of Water street) to the cross in Scholand', (Scholand is now Ferry road and the cross was at its junction with Water Street). The 'North Gate' referred to would then be across present day Castle Road, an obvious and necessary site for a gateway across the well established track between the ferry and the castle. This is described by W. H. Morris as the site of the west gate, which is of course a more accurate cardinal location. By the same argument, having listed all the burgages in Scholand, the rental proceeds to 'Dichstrete' (New Street) and a final crossed out entry refers to one burgage which is now a garden near the west gate of the Bailey. The west gate must thus be the town Gatehouse at the lower end of Castle Street.

Where, then, was Leland's third gate? Returning to the so-called north gate leading into the northern bailey, we have noted how it is an addition to the town wall and lies over the ditch. Clearly it cannot have been built when the walls and ditches of the northern and town bailey were open and functioning for defence. But the old town was in decay when Leland visited it; quite possibly the ditch had become silted up and was used as a track to get into the northern bailey and the arched entrance may have been built by then. In 1891 a yearly lease of 'Conigar Bach' referred to above states that the tenant had to leave a cartway (i.e. the present track along the ditch into the children's playing ground in the northern bailey) and to build 'a proper entrance gate thereto in the wall'. The boundary itself is cleary marked on the 1789 Cawdor map, but the lease condition could refer to the first building of the arched entrance. It is the present author's opinion, and it can be no more in the absence of conclusive evidence, that the boundary was made when the northern bailey was in use as a 'coneygarth' or rabbit warren, which needed to be secure on all sides. So it is possible that the third gate referred to by Leland, was, as suggested earlier, located outside the castle gate.

The Topography of the Bailey
As W. H. Morris noted, the ordinances issued by Duchy of Lancaster officials in 1401 tried to redress the derelict state of the town's defences and prepare for an attack by Glyndwr. They show how the focus of settlement had shifted from the Bailey. Leland, who had a positive obsession for such things, found it 'nere al desolatid'. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the town was often attacked and taken by the Welsh and the defences were thus of paramount importance. But the present property boundaries show little of the continuity of burgage property boundaries so marked in the main axial streets of the town east and west of the River Gwendraeth.

The two main streets in the Bailey (see Fig. 1) were the present day Castle Street and Castle Road. The former is referred to in a deed of 1361, printed in 1975 by W. H. Morris, as the highway leading to the Castle on the north side of a property. A 1405 lease refers to a plot in the Bailey with the 'royal way' to the south as does a 1409 lease.23 These probably lay on the eastern and western sides of Castle Street respectively. The other main route is that leading from the castle westwards to Llansaint and Ferryside. This may be referred to on a 1444 exchange of tenements if we go by the already noted mediaeval orientations of north, south, east and west. The tenement lay between the royal way on the east, the tenement of Philip Box on the south and the tenement formerly of Roger Cardigan on the north and west.24 The property in question could lie under the present Baptist Chapel, and Castle Road thus be the other royal way.

Castle Street roughly bisects the Bailey area, and would thus allow for roughly equal sized burgage plots east and west of it or at least the same range of sizes—between 40 and 70m. in length—as the present day Water Street property boundaries. Castle Street and Castle Road both lead to an open area in front of the main castle gateway, which must have been the original market place. It is referred to in post mediaeval documents as the Castle Green, somewhat misleadingly as this is also the name for the area between the town Gatehouse and the bridge. From the fourteenth century onwards, however, we hear of a market cross in 'Scholand', at the junction of Ferry Road and Water Street, outside the early mediaeval borough.

In the early seventeenth century we hear of a third street—Cock or Coke Street—and in 1678 the lease of an old cottage in Bailey Street was described as having Coke Street on its northern side and Bailey Street on the south. Bailey Street-still thus called in 1866—is the present day Castle Street, so Cock Street must be the present Bailey Street. This would fit the description of properties in Cock Street having old walls, which would be the town wall still surviving on the western side of Ditch/New Street.

The present day property boundaries in the Bailey show little of the continuity of burgage property boundaries so marked in the main axial streets of the town east and west of the Gwendraeth. As noted by W. H. Morris, there were only 3 burgages, 7 tenements and 8 cottages in the Bailey in the early sixteenth century, nor does Gerard Bromley's Survey of 1609 show much change. There was some kind of business activity with 'the Shambles besouth the decayed burgage' in 1609, sited in the triangle of land between Bailey and Castle Street where the school now stands, but not on any possible mediaeval market site, nor does it appear in the eighteenth century documents. The dovecot, mentioned in the early sixteenth century rental, had a longer life. It seems from the 1609 Survey and a 1753 Rental, where it appears as 'The Pidgeon House', to have been sited in the western half of the Bailey.

Throughout most of its history, in comparison to the rest of the town, the Bailey must have presented the appearance of a veritable rus in urbe with its gardens and empty spaces. A number of ruinous properties were recorded in the Chief Rent Roll of 1753.25 There was a malthouse belonging to Alderman Richard Morris in the Bailey Street - Castle Street triangle. There was also 'the great Orchard' occupying the site of 9 former burgages in the graveyard of the present day Baptist Chapel.

A few of the older cottages,—one with a boxed in and thatched roof—remain in Castle and Bailey Street. The shop in front of the present 'Ye Olde Moat Restaurant' has simple undressed timber purlins in its roof and heavy stone walls. Another building of some antiquity, known as 'the Old Tithe Barn' lies along the north side of Castle Road. An area outside the west end of this building was excavated by the author in February 1980, which showed it to have a complex structural history. The present single storeyed structure (heightened at some time) is shorter than the original, and leanto styes were built against the truncated western end. It is not known how old the name is or whether the 'Tyth Barn' leased to Jenkin Malephant in 1765 is the same building. It is again referred to in the 1844 Rate Book.

The Chief Rent Roll of 1753 also shows a marked division between substantial houses with stables, gardens etc, and small cottages. The Mansel family had a house on the eastern side of the Bailey close to the Castle Gate, (now a garden) the picturesque appeal of the Castle no doubt according well with the seclusion from the through traffic of the town. In the nineteenth century there was space available for the imposing Baptist Chapel, and the more modest Welsh Wesleyan, built outside the Castle gate and demolished in 1962 to provide space for a car park. The District School, now closed, was built in the mid-nineteenth century. Castle Farm house was not built until the early twentieth century, yet the presence of a working farm until recently there, typifies the post mediaeval character of the Bailey.

Because there has been little post mediaeval growth the aerial photograph gives us a good idea of mediaeval Kidwelly at its zenith and demonstrates the different phases of town growth. Still dominant is the castle, with its borough, a classical 'garrison town'. Across the river the priory church, whose foundation followed very shortly after the establishment of castle and borough, and which acted as a focus of settlement. Finally the long axial streets, Bridge Street, New Street and Water Street, whose properties and boundaries undoubtedly originated in the middle ages. Here the routeways north to Carmarthen, and to the town's open fields,26 west to the Ferry, an important route west in the middle ages, and east to Swansea, have dominated the settlement, expansion being linear.

The unique natural setting of each town strongly influences its topographical development and the fascination of town studies is to explore the particular disposition of topographical elements—castle, defences, church, priory, friary, burgage plots, market places—common to most mediaeval Welsh towns.



1. Cyril Fox and C. A. Ralegh Radford. Archaeologia 83, 1933, 93107.
2. A full report on the excavation of these trenches is contained in the Detailed Record File of the Dyfed     Archaeological Trust's Sites and Monuments Record, The Old Palace, Abergwili.
3. G T. Clark `Kidwelly Castle' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. III New Series, 120.
4. National Library of Wales, Muddlescombe 2119.
5. Lake is a fairly common word in mediaeval documents in Pembs. and Glam, according to B. G. Charles, and, from the     author's researches, in Carms., meaning brook or stream from O.E. lacu. B. G. Charles, Non Celtic Placenames in     Wales (1938) 306.
6. Public Record Office, DL 29/584/9242. Account of Walter Morton. This and other subsequent documentary     references, if not otherwise stated, I owe to W. H, Morris's transcripts and abstracts.
7. Transcript in the Cawdor/Vaughan collection, Carmarthen Record Office, C/V VI 21/579 and 21/580 for the     Inquisition Post Mortem of Henry, Duke of Lancaster 1361/2.
8. C.R.O. Cawdor/Vaughan III, 44/5854, 46.
9. J. Sheail, Rabbits and their History, 1971, 47.
10. H. Barnie and T. A, James `Hedges and Landscape History: A study of land use in the Kidwelly Area, Carm.      Antiq.     XIII 1977, 42.
1l. N.L.W. Muddlescombe 2221.
12. Episcopal Acts Relating to Welsh Dioceses 10661272. Vol. I. ed. J, Conway Davies. Historical Society of the       Church  in Wales. No. 1, 1941, D 27, 237.
13. In Carmarthen Museum, The Old Palace, Abergwili.
14. W, H. Morris, `A Kidwelly Town Rental of the early sixteenth century (temp. Henry VII). Carm. Antiq. XI 1975.
     A different interpretation is offered here for the location of the `North Gate'.

15. C.R.O. Cawdor 2/42.
16. G. T. Clark, op. cit., 11.
17. C.R.O. C/V VI 21/5856
18. W. Rees. A Survey of the Duchy of Lancaster Lordships in Wales, 16091613 (ed.). Board of Celtic Studies,       University of Wales, History and Law Series. 12, 1953, 194.
19. P.R.O. DL 584/9251. Account of William Harell. W. H.Morris' transcript.
20. P.R.O. DL 29/584/9242, Ministers Accounts 14047, W H. Morris' transcript.
21. L. Toulmin Smith. Leland's Itinerary in England and Wales (ed:) Centaur Press 1964, Vol. III, 59.
22. Morris, op. cit.
23. N.L.W. Muddlescombe 2107 and 2102.
24. N.L.W Muddlescombe 2173.
25. Transcribed in Y Cymmrodor Vol. XXV, 1915.
26. The track to the town's open fields, known as the ‘Summer way’ can be seen at the top of the photograph, on the       western side of Water Street. For further details see H. Barnie and T. A. James, op. cit.

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